The Null Physics theory is a cosmological model developed as an alternative to current models such as the Big Bang theory and Steady State theory. Unlike other theories, Null Physics begins by deriving why the universe exists in order to eliminate the numerous numbers of constants that are necessary in order to support other cosmology theories. The Null Physics theory’s primary assertion is that the universe has always been in existence; therefore, the universe never had an origin.
This theory has recently been released and is under review by a number of members of the scientific community.
Null Physics. Def: The study and quantification of the relationship between the physical states of existence and nonexistence.
Null Physics1 can best be described in terms of its many premises, which are categorized as formative, foundational, and cosmological. A subset of a few of these premises is outlined below.
1. Why. The single most important question concerning the natural world is “why does the universe exist?” Although this is typically viewed by cosmologists as a philosophical question, it is not. It is a physics problem, because the reason for the universe’s existence is tied directly to the properties it has, to include its universal constants, and its universal constants define all physical interactions. The reason for the universe’s existence is physics problem #1.
2. Models versus reality. Current physical theories are incomplete because they do not adequately address the question of why the universe exists. The standard model of cosmology, or Big Bang, does not tell us why the universe exists or why it has the properties it has. It is an empty mathematical model that describes, based purely on the interpretation of cosmological measurements, the universe’s alleged emergence 13.7 billion years ago.
3. Something from nothing. Null Physics restates the problem of why the universe exists in the following way: The universe either had an origin or has existed forever. If the universe had an origin, it was necessarily from the lack of the universe, or nothingness. If the universe had no origin, the problem becomes why does the universe exist, rather than nothingness? In either case, the reason for the existence of the universe is defined by the relationship between existence and nonexistence. More simply, how is existence (something) derived from nothing?
1. Null Axiom. Existence is derived from nonexistence by the following relationship:
0 = 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + …
which is the statement that the sum of nothing is nothing. This is the basis of space’s geometry. Space is composed of geometric points, whose only property is their position relative to other geometric points. Spatial points are represented in the above equation by 0’s, and their relationship to each other is their mutual summation, +. Energy arrives as a distortion of space of the form:
0 = 0 – 0 + 0 – 0 + 0 – 0 + …
which is the statement that the difference of nothing is also nothing. In short, existence is composed of nonexistence. Our universe is the internal substructure of nothingness. In Null Physics this premise is called the Null Axiom.
2. Infinite and eternal. Nothingness is the only state that requires no reason for its presence. Existence is a required internal component of this state. As such, the universe never had an origin because existence and nonexistence are codependent and inseparable. Further, the universe is infinite because there is literally no limit to the amount of nothing within nothing:
0 = 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + …
In short, the universe is composed of nothingness as there is quite literally no other building material available. Each and every one of the universe’s overall properties, such as its extent and perpetuity, arise from its overall sum, nothing.
1. Intergalactic redshift. The key observation that led to the idea of universal expansion is the redshift of light from distant astronomical sources. It is a very precise process, where: photons lose energy (are redshifted) in rough proportion to distance traveled; the breadth of transient pulses is expanded in rough proportion to distance traveled; photons of any energy lose the same fraction of energy for a given distance; photons of any energy released at the same time arrive at the same time; and photons maintain their trajectories (there is no associated scattering). All of these properties indicate that the intergalactic redshift is not caused by any conceivable interaction between light and matter, energy or anything else. Hence the idea of metric expansion of space.
2. Nonexpanding universe. Since, by the Null Axiom, the universe is infinite and eternal, and since its size is the size of nothingness, it cannot vary, and therefore cannot expand. This means that the intergalactic redshift is caused by an alternate mechanism. Other than matter and energy, the only known thing in deep space is the universal gravitational field. This, by the process of elimination, is the progenitor of the intergalactic redshift.
3. Expanding photons. The General Theory of Relativity indicates that space has an average curvature caused by the distribution of matter and energy throughout the universe. This average curvature represents a differential velocity field, where any small distance dx has an associated velocity difference of dv. Space itself does not expand, because it is not a material thing, but photons that move through space are subjected to the differential velocity associated with its gravitational curvature, and this velocity difference, applied over their wavelength, causes them to expand and lose energy. In short, their trailing edge moves slightly slower than their leading edge, distending their wavelength. The curvature of space is very small, so photons only lose about half of their energy every ten billion years. Even so, this means that half of the universe’s entire fusion output is lost every ten billion years. The universe is a steady-state system, so the energy lost in intergalactic redshift is by the universe’s fusion output.
4. Cosmic microwaves. The prevalence of the cosmic microwave background radiation suggests an ancient cataclysm because they represent far more microwave energy than contemporary astronomical objects could possibly generate. The amount of microwave energy that stars and galaxies radiate is only a few parts per million of their total output, yet the cosmic microwave background is far and away the most energy dense background in space, with more than ten times the energy of starlight.
5. Decaying photons. When photons expand on their intergalactic journeys, the energy they lose has to go somewhere, because it is a conserved quantity. Since this energy loss is so enormous, its signature has to be similarly massive, and it is. Expanding optical photons lose energy by emitting microwaves. The conservation of energy and momentum require that these microwaves be emitted collinear to their source photon. Since optical signals have such a low microwave content, and since the cosmic microwave background has a perfect thermal spectrum, it follows that the microwaves emitted by intergalactic photons are thermalized into the microwave background soon after their emission. This is why the cosmic microwave background has so much energy and is also why all of these microwaves originate from deep space. And as it turns out, this microwave emission has been directly observed. William Tifft identified quantization in the intergalactic redshift that corresponds to the discrete energy steps that optical radiation incurs upon microwave emission. These quantizations are not evident in large-scale galactic surveys because they are obscured by the redshifts produced by the random motions of galaxies. They are evident, however, in smaller clusters and groups.
6. Eternal equilibrium. The universe has existed forever, so any cosmic process that produces byproducts must have a complementary process that reverses this production. The universe’s predominant cosmic process is fusion, which uses hydrogen and produces light and compound atomic nuclei, such as helium and carbon. This means that mechanisms have to exist to capture this light energy and use it to disassociate compound nuclei back into hydrogen for an infinitely renewable supply. The first step of this process is intergalactic redshift, which converts light energy into microwave energy. The next step is to transfer this energy to an environment where it can be applied to break compound nuclei back down into hydrogen, to provide an eternal source of universal fuel. This process requires the existence of galaxies, specific galactic motion profiles, galactic banding, massive black holes at the centers of galaxies, and it is why jets of hydrogen have been observed leaving the core regions of galaxies.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
1. Zero, The Biography of a Dangerous Idea, Charles Seife
2. The Book of Nothing, John Barrow
A more complete description of Null Physics can be found in the volume Our Undiscovered Universe, published in 2007. ISBN 0-9785931-3-8